Külgazdaság Vol. 5-6/2021

The export-enhancing effect of a stronger relative protection of intellectual property rights


The objective of this paper is to introduce the notion of relative intellectual property rights protection strength and to analyze its effect on the international trade of goods. This new measure is interpreted as the strength of the intellectual property rights protection regime in one country relative to the strength of such a regime in a trading partner country. In the model presented in this paper, this factor affects the range of products that flow from an exporter country to its trading partner. The model predicts that if the relative intellectual property rights protection gets stronger in an importing country, then it attracts more imports of both high-tech and low-tech products into the country. The paper also analyses Hungary’s exports to empirically test the model’s predictions. Our final conclusion is that Hungary’s high-tech exports are affected positively and significantly by the strengthening of the trading partner country’s relative intellectual property rights protection, and that this effect is stronger than the otherwise also positive and significant impact on low-tech products. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes: D21, D23, F14, K11.

Difficulties in diversification in resource-rich countries – the case of Botswana


Resource revenues are difficult to manage and they require specific expertise and wisdom from governments of resource-rich countries. This paper synthesizes two main strands of the existing literature by presenting the different transmission channels of the resource curse and by analysing the resource-based development strategy of Botswana. Most developing countries are resource-rich and undiversified – despite adequate and consistent government policies aimed at diversification. This paper points out that the failure of these diversification strategies is due to related endogenous and exogenous factors. Resource-rich developing nations need complex, country-specific solutions to catch up. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes: L72, P28, F31, R58.

Digital transformation and Industry 4.0: experiences from Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia and Romania


Digitization affects all industries and transforms them significantly. The digital transformation has been accelerated by national and international measures taken in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, the effects of digital transformation and Industry 4.0 have yet been discussed in only a few empirical studies, making it one of the most important socio-economic research areas of our time. Not far from closing this research gap, but rather widening it further, the practice of 302 domestic companies and firms located in countries surrounding Hungary and involved in Industry 4.0 was explored with the help of questionnaire research. The results identified the focus areas and maturity of the examined digital and Industry 4.0 companies, as well as their spatial specificities. Furthermore, it was explored what companies active in Industry 4.0 expect from key actors in the digital and industry 4.0 ecosystem. The article also makes economic policy recommendations and identifies a number of further research areas. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes: L22, L23, L25, M11, M15, M16, O14, O19, O32, O33.

Integration and digitalisation in the Central and Eastern European automotive industry


The role of the Central and Eastern European countries in the automotive industry of the EU is significant: they contribute to the competitiveness of the EU through their cost-based advantages and advanced technological environment. How have the location advantages of the region changed lately? How can digitalisation affect location and investment decisions in the automotive industry? This report analyses these changes in the trade cost theory framework, and through a firm sample. Its major conclusion is that the ever-wider application of digitalisation reduces trade costs and opens up new perspectives for firms, also in the Central and Eastern European automotive industry that has by now deeply integrated in the EU sector, while this may at the same time appear as a threat for peripheral locations. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes: F15, F23, L62, O14.

Digitalisation and location advantages in Hungary


The slowdown of globalisation and the pandemic intensified the reorganisation of global production chains. In this process, multinational enterprises reconsider location advantages. Modern companies function in a digitalised environment, new business models are created with the increasing importance of factors such as innovation, digital infrastructure and international cooperation. Most indicators of digitalisation still display a laggard position for Hungary, particularly for domestic small- and medium-sized enterprises. The article analyses how the previous main Hungarian location advantage, the skilled labour force has vanished and how the stable legal and business environment has eroded. As political intentions to upgrade the education system in order to create the necessary competencies has been missing, Hungary will not be in the position of taking advantage of digitalisation: it is likely to lag behind in international competition. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) codes: I20, J24, L23

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